As millions of Malaysian struggle to eke out a living, the political drama continues. I have read some of the comments given by SAPP for their decision include, flip-flop positions, fire fighting due to poorly conceived plans, economic incompetence etc.
Let’ say even if all these are true, wouldn’t any action against the ruling party now create more instability to the economy. As it is now, people are already lost and confused no thanks to the gigantic increase in fuel prices and the resulting increases in prices in almost everything. In the end, it’s the lower and middle class people (the majority of the citizens) who will suffer most.
Arguably, the most common answer an MP (all parties) gives when asked why he/she is in politics, and chances are they will reply, “To serve the Rakyat.” Well. For once, do it! Work together now (ALL political parties), if they still want, slug it out when things are better. What we need now is stability.
Steel Engineering – Connection Design
This is a continuation of the Support Truss that I was doing previously. Since, it has to be connected to Reinforced Concrete (probably to the beam or column) the usual methods are either 1) Cast-in bolts or 2) Chemical bolts.
Can’t include a sketch, as I noticed the sketches (done originally in Microsoft Excel) that I inserted earlier did not come out properly. Can anyone help me with this?
Basically Cast-In bolts are inserted into the timber formwork before the beams or columns are concreted. The protruding threads (say 50mm protrusion) connects to pre-punched plates that have been welded to the truss.
As for chemical bolts (example Hilti, Ramsett etc) are special bolts that are used after RC beams or columns have been casted. Holes are drilled into the concrete and these bolts are then inserted breaking a seal which releases certain chemical which bonds the bolt to the concrete.
Anyway, I have a stand alone program that calculates bolt shear, bolt bearing, plate bearing, welds, bolt tensile capacity and good things like that. All these are designed based on the British Code, BS5950. (Must see how I can improve that software now that I have more free time).
Please note that there are 2 common types of bolts, Grade 4.6 and Grade 8.8. The different grade has different shear strength. The formula for calculating the shear capacity is : Ps = ps x As , where ps is the shear strength ( 160 N/mm2 for Grade 4.6 and 970 N/mm2 for Grade 8.8). As is the tensile area of the bolt.
Similar there are 2 common different grades for steel plates, Grade 46 and Grade 50.
HOW TO GET BY
I got to think ways how to get through this downturn. Remember, for always every disaster, there are always opportunities. Think out of the box. Not merely increasing productivity but more ideas that one can do. A successful friend once told me, that there is no law that dictate that a person can’t get rich during the worst recession. Just can’t rely on the Government to improve things. More about these the next time.